St Andrews Bay

glacierThe King Penguin colony in front of the Ross Glacier is also connected to the Zooniverse project http://www.penguinwatch.org and to http://www.penguinlifelines.org.

The number of inhabitants is in the region of several hundred thousand, depending on time of the year. It was stunning to see even from the ship. The tiny Snowy Sheathbills were getting almost no attention.snowy sheathbill

At the landing site, female Elephant Seals defied all rules of keeping a distance, and the Kings were not any better. landing siteI think they liked using the path the humans had created. Elephant sealsBut we really did keep away from the Elephant Seal bulls. Luckily, they were in much better mood than the Fur Seal bulls. If they were around, we had a system of one taking pictures and the other one guarding and, if necessary shooing the teenage bulls away. I got quite good at that! You just make yourself big, and then let out an almighty ‘HAAA’ coming from deep down in your guts. It’s a bit like Tai Chi.

Along the way we saw several reindeer skeletons. The animals had been introduced by humans, and now they are being culled (http://www.sgisland.gs/index.php/%28h%29Welcome_to_South_Georgia). reindeer

The Skuas have to hunt for themselves. They are rather good at that. Skua feeding

The way to the colony was scored with two rivers. The penguins were decidely better in crossing them than the humans, but we made it. riverriver 2

Finally, the joy of not a flock, but a carpet of penguins.colony KingsI found it overwhelming. I was, after all I had seen so far, still unprepared for this. I can deal much better with smaller numbers. But for the penguins and all the scavengers like the Snowy Sheathbills a healthy big colony is what we should wish for and help to protect!

So we said good-bye to South Georgia and started sailing past the South Orkneys to the South Shetland Islands, just off the Antarctic Peninsula.

Grytviken

Our third day at South Georgia started with a lecture about rats and how to kill them. More information can be obtained here: http://www.sgisland.gs/index.php/%28e%29Eradication_Of_Rodents?useskin=env. Shackleton graveBeing the capital of South Georgia, Grytviken’s deceased inhabitants include Shackleton, whale boneswhales and the equipment to kill them with. whaling ship

Very much alive are the scientists from the BAS (http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/about_bas/our_history/stations_and_refuges/kep.php) modern stationin their research station. small Elephant sealsThe Elephant Seals, watched by Scottish tourist, are only sleeping. viewThe view over the bay is really spectacular, and I also managed to get my first picture of a Snow Petrel.Snowy Petrel

 

Stromness

Stromness is known because of its connection to Ernest Shackleton and his hike (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Shackleton). That is why the little waterfall at the end of a small valley behind the landing site was a popular destination, particularly for the Brits amongst the passengers.Shackelton waterfall To us it did not matter that much, so we rather enjoyed the lifting clouds and the scenery.Lake Fram in StromnessThe local wildlife consisted mainly of a big Fur Seal colony which had made its home, oh irony, in a former whaling station. Fur Seals in stationI find it vindicating to see how the animals are thriving – there also used be sealing, and Fur Seals came close to extinction. Fur Seal and relicsHowever, one reason for the seals growing in number is lack of competition for food from whales.

‘Intensive commercial hunting of whales removed hundreds of thousands of whales in 60 years and reduced the Southern Ocean stock, once the largest in the world, to less than 10 % of their original numbers and some species to less than 1%.’ (copied from http://www.sght.org/Marine-Wildlife) I find the word ‘removed’ a spectacular euphemism for ‘murdered’.

Visitors must keep a distance of 200m from the station because of debris and asbestos.Stromness station

Other species which are living around this area are Elephant Seals, Elephant seal snotSkuas and King Penguins.Skuamoulting Kings

Fortuna Bay

Here is a map (courtesy of Hurtigruten) to put our South Georgia landings in context. Fortuna Bay greeted us with rain and low-hanging clouds, but since we were well-equipped for this kind of weather, off we went.map

There were Fur Seals again! By now, a lot of people had developed a somewhat not-so-friendly view of the young males, but the pups made up for this. Fur Seal pupIt has to be said, however, that less than half of them make it to adulthood. Fur Seal pup dead

The Elephant Seal females were moulting and happy to be left alone. Elephant Seal moultingIt was quite rare to see them active, especially with the males mostly off to feed in the ocean. active Elephant Seals

The highlight of course was the local King Penguin colony, which accidentally is also home to a few Gentoos. The Kings can grow up to one meter in height. King and GentooKings walkingThere was a lot of coming and going, quite a bit of preening, Kings preeningKing feedingmoulting and the occasional feeding. The juvenile fluffballs can’t swim yet and thus can’t catch their own food. They need to moult and grow their adult plumage first.Kings and humans The penguins don’t seem to mind the humans, and people were paying attention to keep their distance and give the birds right of way. If you have enough patience and don’t mind waiting in the rain, the curious ones will come and inspect you. Scot and King

Salisbury Plain

Before the passengers could go on shore, the Expedition Team prepared the landing site. At Salisbury Plain that included spotting the bit of the beach that was not entirely occupied by Fur Seals.choosing landing site Boat groups of passengers took turns in who was allowed to go first, and as a result I was the first of only a few lucky ones to make it. The landing had to be aborted and turned into a drive-by on the polarcircle boats because of the swell. FramAnyway, there I was, being utterly happy. Coming to this place had been a secret hope (the surprise came on the evening before the landing) because this colony is part of a project hosted by the Zooniverse, http://www.penguinwatch.org/.

This meant I had seen pictures similar to mine below before, but was still gobsmacked by the reality. King colonyIn the project, members of the public, called Citizen Scientists, help to identify juvenile and adult penguins from different colonies. Give it a try! Or go to http://www.penguinlifelines.org/ for more information.

Although the King Penguins are the main attraction, given the fact that there are hundreds of thousands of them not difficult, there was a lot more going on.Giant Petrel hunting Giant Petrels were always around. We had to be very careful around young male adult Fur Seals, but the Elephant Seals were much more pleasant.Elephant Seal The penguins and the seals seem to exist following a ‘live and let live’ idea. King walkingKing juvenileThe colony is just one of several on the island, and the peculiar breeding cycle of the Kings gave us a chance to see chicks in all their brown fluffiness, moulting adults and courting adults.

Penguin communication involves a lot of body language. Kings communicatingThey also spend a surprising amount of time on their bellies or standing on their heels.King swimming King baskingOn a sunny day at Salisbury Plain, life is definitely good.

First Impressions of South Georgia

We woke up on Dec 7 to this view from our porthole. South Georgia 1Rain, fog, swell. Breakfast time. And because the weather on South Georgia changes faster than you can say ‘fur seal’, after breakfast we enjoyed this: South Georgia 2

It became clear that both beach and sea were teeming with wildlife.South Georgia 4South Georgia 3 We spotted Fur Seals in the water and a Light-mantled Sooty Albatross kept on flying by. Fur SealLight-mantled Sooty Albatross

Best of all, however, were the King Penguins. At a rough estimate, 200 000 King Penguins.Kings Then we went ashore … next post.

Shag Rocks & an Iceberg

On the afternoon of Dec 4 we started sailing towards South Georgia, which we would reach eventually on Dec 7. In between, we crossed from the South Atlantic Ocean into the Antarctic (Southern) Ocean, or Scotia Sea as this part of it is called. The two oceans are connected or separated, that depends on your point of view, by the Antarctic Convergence (wikipedia article).
The first South Georgian outpost we made out in the fog on the afternoon of Dec 6 was Shag Rocks. shag rocksThey are aptly named after their inhabitants.
Yes, it’s the dots on the rocks – mainly shags and albatrosses. shag rocks detail
Shortly afterwards, we knew for sure we’d come south when we met our first iceberg, just a small one. You can see an albatross flyingiceberg and albatross just left of the middle if you zoom into the photo. I was, still am, captivated by ice. iceberg and petrelsThere is so much to discover in the whiteness, like the two Cape Petrels or the dark layer (maybe volcanic ash) in the ice. Beautiful frozen water. iceart